In SQL Server, filegroups are a management technique that I don’t see many people using. It’s amazing how many people ask questions about filegroups on the discussion forums, often unsure of how they fit into a well architected SQL Server. I have tended to use filegroups mostly as a space management technique, when I need to add more disks to my server, but they can be used in many more places.
We continue to grow our data sizes all the time. While many databases are still measured in the single digits of gigabytes (or smaller), it is fairly common to find many database servers with over a terabyte of disk space. Our disks grow larger and larger, but it seems that data grows faster than disks, requiring larger storage subsystems all the time.
While our storage grows larger, the tolerance for delays shrinks and demands for better performance increase. That means that data professionals need to be more cognizant of not only how their code is written, but also how they design storage. Tiering storage is one idea that I think has merit, but one that requires some planning.
In SQL Server, we can’t split a table across filegroups. Or can we? We can partition a table (Enterprise Edition and higher), which can allow us to manage performance and storage appropriately. There is also the recommended practice of only having system objects in the primary partition and using separate filegroups for user data. That allows you to bring a partial database online, again, in Enterprise Edition only, while you restore different filegroups.
This isn’t the first thing I would recommend you learn about SQL Server, but as you advance your knowledge, you should better understand when and how filegroups can help you. You will use them at some point and being comfortable with a filegroup restore is one of the skills that separates the accidental DBA from the data professional.